Exosomes stem cells to treat myocardial consequences
Researchers from Medical School Templestowe University (Temple University School of Medicine, TUSM, USA) discovered new method to restore heart function after a heart attack using stem cells actcom.
About ten years ago, scientists discovered that all cells secrete tiny bubbles called ectosomal . responsible for communication between cells and transport of substances.
A team of researchers led by Dr. Raj Kishore (Kishore Raj) decided to use exosomes to stimulate healing after a heart attack damaged hearts.
For all its functional reliability, the heart has very little capacity for self-recovery. It cannot repair damage caused by heart attack the muscles, but instead compensates for the lost capacity of the blood pumping. However, this compensation leads to the fact that the heart increases in size, becomes flabby, its contractions become weaker. Congestive heart failure leads to one of the nine deaths in the U.S. and is almost the main cause of death of Americans.
Heart disease was considered one of the top priorities of the emerging medical field of stem cell therapy . The researchers believed that stem cells derived from embryos, will contribute to samoupravleniya. In the study, scientists relied on basic properties of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) pluripotency (the ability to turn into any cell of an adult organism) and the ability to reproduce.
However, one of the biggest problems in the transplantation of ESCs is the risk of the formation of tumors, called teratoma. Teratoma – a mass of cells different kinds of fabrics. On this basis, Dr. Kishore developed a methodology that allowed to circumvent the negative effects of transplantation of embryonic stem cells.
Cancer researchers found that the tiny vesicles (exosomes), which were previously considered waste heat waste, actually help the cells to exchange information. For example, exosomes turned out to be one of the “means of communication” primary cancer with distant metastases. The researchers found that almost all types of cells secrete exosomes.
Dr. Kishore decided to learn more about exosomes stem cells and figure out whether they can help rebuild the heart.
In 2011, the team of Kishore published the first results of its work to restore heart muscle using stem cells actcom.
In the current study group Kishore used mice with myocardial infarction in an experimental model. One group of animals received injections of ecosom the ESC, and the other exosomes fibroblasts (control group).
Mice, which were injected with exosomes stem cells showed improved heart function, compared with the second group. Also, the first group of cells has experienced a heart attack and fewer cells entered the phase of apoptosis, was formed less scar tissue. In addition, the animals that received an injection of actcom stem cells formed more capillaries around the injured area, improve blood flow and oxygen delivery to the heart muscle.
Moreover, the marked increase in the number of precursor cells of cardiomyocytes forming new heart cells. In animals of the first group’s heartbeat was stronger than in animals from control group, and the size of pathological expansion, the compensating tissue damage was minimized.
Next, the researchers tested the effect of one of the most common molecules control genes microRNA – miR-294 . located in actsoma stem cells. After the introduction in laboratory conditions, miR-294 in stem cells of the heart, observed the same effects as when delivered to the cells themselves actcom.
“Pretty much one microRNA can replicate the effect of whole exosomes, but we can not say that only she is responsible for all the effects, as in actsoma stem cells contains many other microRNAs,” said Kishore .
Further research will be directed to study therapy alsosome stem cells and the study of specific types of microRNAs to treat heart disease of large animals, but in the future clinical trials in humans.